David S. Anthony (1918-2010) was an American chemist.
After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, he joined the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory as an associate chemist. Anthony was raised a Quaker and noted the irony of his work on the atomic bomb. While at Chicago, Anthony signed the Szilard petition, which attempted to avert the use of the atomic bombs against Japan.
After World War II, he was appointed senior chemist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He also served as Director of Biomedical Research at Mound Laboratory in Miamisburg, Ohio. Anthony later became a professor of chemistry and botany at the University of Florida. Throughout his career, Anthony was an active environmentalist.