This section provides an overview of the history of the Manhattan Project, the key organizations involved, the science behind the bomb, and more.
Emblem of the Antarctic Treaty

Nuclear Weapon Free Zones and Denuclearization

This article discusses Nuclear Weapon Free Zones and other denuclearization agreements.

Nuclear Weapon Test Bans

This article summarizes multilateral and bilateral nuclear weapon test ban treaties.
Bikini Test

Operation Crossroads

Operation Crossroads was a series of nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands in 1946.
Norsk Hydro's Vemork Plant Outside of Rjukan, Norway. Photo Credit: By Tor-Egil Farestveit (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

Operation Gunnerside

On February 27, 1943, nine Norwegian commandos sabotaged the German-held Vemork plant outside of Rjukan, Norway. Operation Gunnerside successfully set-back Germany's atomic bomb program.
Shot Hood of Operation Plumbbob. Image courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory Archives.

Operation Plumbbob - 1957

Operation Plumbbob was a series of 29 nuclear tests conducted by the U.S. military between May 28 and October 7, 1957, at the Nevada Test Site.

Oppenheimer Security Hearing

In 1954, J. Robert Oppenheimer's security clearance was revoked by the Atomic Energy Commission.
B Reactor controls.

Peaceful Nuclear Innovations

Nuclear science has many peaceful implications for science and technology.
A ring of plutonium. Image courtesy Los Alamos National Laboratory/Wikimedia Commons.


The discovery of plutonium created unique opportunities and challenges for scientists.
President George H. W. Bush and President Mikhail Gorbachev sign United States/Soviet Union agreements to end chemical weapon production and begin destroying their respective stocks, 1990. Photo courtesy of the George Bush Presidential Library.

Post-Cold War World

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 created a number of problems for the international community with regards to nuclear weapons.