This section provides an overview of the history of the Manhattan Project, the key organizations involved, the science behind the bomb, and more.
Doctor Atomic

Doctor Atomic

Doctor Atomic is an opera composed by John Adams with a libretto by Peter Sellars about the Manhattan Project and the Trinity Test.
The World Set Free

Early Atomic Science

In 1914, novelist H. G. Wells envisioned an atomic bomb that would produce a continual radioactive explosion in his book "The World Set Free."
Arthur Compton at work. Image courtesy of the University of Chicago Photographic Archive, apf1-01881, Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library.

Effects of Radiation

The first concerted effort to understand and study the effects of radiation on humans began in Chicago in 1942.
Norris Bradbury standing next to the Gadget Device. Each of the 32 detonators (circles with two wires) attached to the Fireset (box) using two bridgewires.

Electronics and Detonators

Manhattan Project scientists and engineers in Los Alamos, NM designed and developed a number of innovations in the field of electronics.
Clinch River

Environmental Consequences

Both the Oak Ridge and Hanford sites were chosen for their isolation and access to hydropower from surrounding river systems.
A World War II poster


Espionage was one of General Groves' main concerns during the Manhattan Project.
The Dampierre Nuclear Power Plant in northern France

French Nuclear Program

France became the fourth country to possess nuclear weapons after its first test in 1960. While development was slowed by the impact of World War II, the achievements of early French research were critical for nuclear development worldwide.
Haigerloch Nuclear Pile

German Atomic Bomb Project

“I don't believe a word of the whole thing,” declared Werner Heisenberg, the scientific head of the German nuclear program, after hearing the news that the United States had dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

Gojira (1954)

Introduction: ゴジラ, Gojira, or Godzilla

Gojira, or Godzilla, has been one of the most enduring and iconic kaiju (Japanese giant monsters) in popular culture. Undoubtedly, the the monster created from an H-bomb blast has captured the imagination of people around the world. The Toho Company, which produces the Gojira films, has released 29 live-action films and 3 animated films over the last sixty years.