This section provides an overview of the history of the Manhattan Project, the key organizations involved, the science behind the bomb, and more.

Nuclear Weapon Test Bans

This article summarizes multilateral and bilateral nuclear weapon test ban treaties.
The late Bill Wilcox by the Friendship Bell. Courtesy of the Friends of the International Friendship Bell.

Oak Ridge International Friendship Bell

Since World War II, bells have served as proponents of freedom, peace, and remembrance internationally. At the A.K. Bissell Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the Oak Ridge International Friendship Bell symbolizes the strides for peace and reconciliation between Japan and the United States.
Bikini Test

Operation Crossroads

Operation Crossroads was a series of nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands in 1946.
Norsk Hydro's Vemork Plant Outside of Rjukan, Norway. Photo Credit: By Tor-Egil Farestveit (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

Operation Gunnerside

On February 27, 1943, nine Norwegian commandos sabotaged the German-held Vemork plant outside of Rjukan, Norway. Operation Gunnerside successfully set back Germany's atomic bomb program.
Shot Hood of Operation Plumbbob. Image courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory Archives.

Operation Plumbbob - 1957

Operation Plumbbob was a series of 29 nuclear tests conducted by the U.S. military between May 28 and October 7, 1957, at the Nevada Test Site.

Oppenheimer Security Hearing

In 1954, J. Robert Oppenheimer's security clearance was revoked by the Atomic Energy Commission.
The logo of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

Pakistani Nuclear Program

Amid a bitter rivalry with India, Pakistan became a nuclear power after testing its first bombs in 1998.
B Reactor controls.

Peaceful Nuclear Innovations

Nuclear science has many peaceful implications for science and technology.
A ring of plutonium. Image courtesy Los Alamos National Laboratory/Wikimedia Commons.


Plutonium was first produced and isolated on December 14, 1940 at the University of California, Berkeley.