Atomic Heritage Foundation

In partnership with the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History National Museum of Nuclear Science & History

Join Today as an Atomic History Patron Member



This section provides an overview of the history of the Manhattan Project, the key organizations involved, the science behind the bomb, and more.
The Great Artiste

Hiroshima and Nagasaki Missions - Planes & Crews

A list of the planes and the crews that flew on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing missions.
Painting commemorating Hispanos' work on the Manhattan Project at El Convento in Española.

Hispanos in Los Alamos

Although frequently omitted from official histories, Hispanos have served in pivotal positions at Los Alamos since its inception.
Former HUAC Chairman J. Parnell Thomas

HUAC and the Manhattan Project

A number of scientists associated with the Manhattan Project were eventually investigated by the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Operation at Oak Ridge Hospital, 1944

Human Radiation Experiments

Between April 1945 and July 1947, eighteen subjects were injected with plutonium, six with uranium, five with polonium, and at least one with americium in order to better understand the effects of radioactive materials on the human body.
Bravo thermonuclear test

Hydrogen Bomb - 1950

In January 1950, President Truman made the controversial decision to continue and intensify research and production of thermonuclear weapons.
The logo of the Bhabha Atomic Energy Commission

Indian Nuclear Program

India tested its first atomic bomb in 1974 but did not develop a significant nuclear arsenal until more than two decades later.

Isotope Separation Methods

How to separate the much more potent U-235 from its abundant relative, U-238 consumed thousands of hours and millions of dollars.
An American satellite image of the Dimona nuclear complex, 1968

Israeli Nuclear Program

Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons, but has never confirmed the existence of its nuclear program.
A Japanese cyclotron constructed after the war

Japanese Atomic Bomb Project

Japan initiated multiple small efforts to pursue an atomic bomb, but all were unsuccessful.